Wednesday, 18 March 2020

Ancient Truths? - Part 5 : From 100 AD to 1200 AD

© 2020, John Lerwill

Dear Reader,

Reflections On Part 4, and then...

The history of the world is usually framed around events and individuals, but this outline history is foremostly concerned with eschatological causation. In other words, I see history having originally been stimulated by spiritual objectives - a creationist perspective that has seen an evolution of life and civilisations even up to 10,000BC and carried on in a different milieu according to changed circumstances - physical and spiritual - on Earth. 

My view - as referred to in earlier chapters (parts) of this story - is that history then passed through 10,000 years consisting of the re-development of mankind and saw the coming of great influences by beings that became known as 'gods', and also stimulated by great spiritual incarnations such as Zarathustra, Krishna, Lao Tzu and the Buddha (and others), culminating in Jesus as the spirit of the age at the start of the so-called Christian era.

Up to 100AD (and afterwards), there was no mass 'Christian' religion. Nor was there such religion for some time to come. Instead, there were a number of strains of esoteric or gnostic interpretation, though also the development of an 'outer' form akin to religion. But it should not be thought that the early Roman version of Jesus's teaching was as it became a few centuries later. Indeed, until Emperor Constantine (Caesar 306-337AD), any form of 'Christianity' was often put down heavily by Rome.

This history is now going to mainly concern itself with the influence that various institutions - including the official Christian church and Islam - had on the western world and how the events of the western world have been triggered as a result of such influences. This would appear to be the framework of real history in the west: schools and universities teach a history that is primarily based on anthropological, political and cultural events, without taking into account hidden influences. My approach may seem to consist of conspiracy theories, but the facts seem to confirm this form of history. Indeed, 'hidden influences' always seem to have been present, as talked of in earlier chapters.

Benjamin Disraeli had cause to make a reference to 'hidden influences' in a speech to the House of Commons, July 14, 1856:

There is in Italy a power which we seldom mention in this House ... I mean the secret societies.... It is useless to deny, because it is impossible to conceal, that a great part of Europe--the whole of Italy and France and a great portion of Germany, to say nothing of other countries--is covered with a network of these secret societies, just as the superficies of the earth is now being covered with railroads. And what are their objects? They do not attempt to conceal them. They do not want constitutional government; they do not want ameliorated institutions ... they want to change the tenure of land, to drive out the present owners of the soil and to put an end to ecclesiastical establishments. Some of them may go further....
'Secret societies', as we shall see, owe a substantial part of their foundation to religious and esoteric orders.

Nesta H. Webster in 'Secret Societies and Subversive Movements' (1924), stated:
... from the first century of the Christian era ... it is only by taking a general survey of the movement that it is possible to understand the causes of any particular phase of its existence. The French Revolution did not arise merely out of conditions or ideas peculiar to the eighteenth century, nor the Bolshevist Revolution out of political and social conditions in Russia or the teaching of Karl Marx. Both these explosions were produced by forces which, making use of popular suffering and discontent, had long been gathering strength for an onslaught not only on Christianity, but on all social and moral order.
In writing this chapter I have been greatly helped by the book 'The Secret History Of The World' (2010) by philosopher and theologian Mark Booth (usually published under the name Jonathan Black). However, my main usage of this book is in respect of its historical outlines of institutions and individuals and their influence, which I find well researched. The author's views on certain aspects are, however, mostly very different from my own. Indeed, the author's lack of experience of eastern spiritual teachings takes away some of the value of his otherwise valuable book in my view. 

It is my humble observation that the thinking of western authors is based heavily on what is a unique western perception as they invariably have not been much exposed to other sources of thinking. What they do glean from the east is typically interpreted in the objective western way, and sometimes with some gloss. This is the result of scientific objectivity that has been the mainstay of education in the west this past few hundreds of years and an approach which will be seen to be unbalanced - indeed it has led us to the extreme climate and warlike conditions of the past one hundred years and more, and which thinking has been in contradiction to the teachings of the spiritual masters. 

From 100AD to 1200AD

Ignoring the early church at Jerusalem and the claims of Britain to have been the scene of the first church in Europe, at Glastonbury, Clement (bn 35AD) has been formally considered to be the first Apostolic Father of the Church, one of the three chief ones together with Polycarp and Ignatius of Antioch. However, there was another Clement - Clement of Alexandria - a theologian and philosopher who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria. This Clement was a substantial influence in the development of spiritual thought in the near east in the latter part of the 2nd century. Origen was a foremost pupil.

The Clement/Origen strain would appear to have been imbued with Hellenistic ideas, but it is said that the teachings of the Greko/Egyptian pre-first-millennium mystery schools played their part, influencing - as they did - the Essene and Druidic movements. Indeed, the Alexandria School was influenced also by Buddhism.

In terms of the development of what we now know as 'the Bible', it is known that none of the New Testament was written during the time of Jesus. Indeed, the earliest books were written after the destruction of the Jerusalem Church in 70AD. But up until 325AD, there was no 'Bible' as such: there were many books in circulation that were later discarded, including the (then) very popular books of Enoch and Thomas. Today, these books have been back in circulation for some time and are considered as being invaluable in their insight into deeper aspects of spiritual thought and (in Thomas, and in other books that have come to light) the ways of Jesus. Then how was it that they were not included when the Bible was first compiled?

Emperor Constantine is said to have had a vision of a cross during the course of a battle in around 310AD, and, since it was a battle that he won, he appears to have taken on a benign attitude towards 'the Christians' from that time. Many, however, overlook the fact that the cross has been a spiritual symbol from time immemorial (as, indeed, has the swastika), but Constantine was egged on by his British-born mother to favour Christianity. This he did, but, notably, did not become a Christian himself until (it is believed) he was on his deathbed. As he appears to have done away with both his wife and son, Constantine himself does not seem to have seen Christianity as a vehicle towards higher thought and spirituality, which was what was intended.

By 325AD, Constantine was searching for a means to reunite an increasingly discordant empire, and by then he had decided that the Christian 'voice' was becoming strong enough for it to be used as his vehicle to enforce unity. But it was also clear to him that he needed to 'peddle' a consistent and unambiguous religion that everyone could follow, rather than the multiplicity of spiritual ideas that all together formed the 'Christianity' of the day. Such a religion needed to have one 'code ' book, he decided, and hence he called those he thought were the principal theologians of the day to a council at Nicea in the year 325AD.  Their task was to make a 'Bible'.

One of the main delegates was a highly respected-theologian named Arius, whose argument for a unitary God - he considered that Jesus was not 'God' - was, eventually, over-ruled. Having won that argument (but only just), the council had an easier task to determine which books should be included in a Bible, and hence we have today the Bible that they constructed, and is called 'the Canon'. Except, that is, for the books mentioned earlier (and others) and one further major book - the Book of Revelation. I understand that this book was not included at this council and, indeed, there appears to have been a recent scientific evaluation of its authorship that has determined that the book was not written by the Apostle John but, instead, has its origins in Jewish mysticism in the 3rd century AD. But that is another story.

Roman Catholicism, therefore, has its true roots in Emperor Constantine and this Council of Nicea in 325AD. Further, its formation as the authoritative religious establishment meant that any other form of Christianity was subsequently to be regarded as heretical, with increasing punishment being applied to those infringing the Vatican's view of the Canon as time went on. That church subsequently went on to make further determinations in the interests of political control, notably the removal of the principle of reincarnation at another council in 353AD. By not only making Christianity become essentially the worship of a specific being (or 'god'), the removal of reincarnation made Christianity quite unique among the main religions and spiritual thought of that time: even Judaism does not discount reincarnation.

Furthermore, in the 9th century, the Church merged the notion of spirits and soul as one entity, thereby closing the route to certain forms of mysticism. For many years Christianity followed the papal dictate on all things and not even the Reformation has cleared up the truth of the basis of the religion.

However, a long time before the Reformation, the year 1054 saw the breakup of the Christian church into two - the western and the eastern sections. These two sections were to turn into the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. This matter is particularly worth mentioning as the Eastern Church always remained more inclined towards mysticism, and that remained so for several more centuries until the Eastern Church also became more conservative.

As far as Christianity is concerned, much of the period from ca 440AD until around 1100AD has been regarded as the 'Dark Ages', although the time of Charlemagne (742-814AD) was regarded as a pinnacle in Christian history. Also, King Alfred of the West Saxons (871-899AD) was a civilising influence in Britain at the time in his promotion of learning. Nothing much can be said here of the age of King Arthur, whose history is so vague that he appears almost like a mythological figure. It has been mainly the magnificent research done by historians Alan Wilson and Baram Blackett that has brought much to light about that figurehead, and at least their work seems to confirm that King Arthur was a real person.

In Britain, Roman Catholicism finally took over, in ca. 616AD, from the British Church, and, despite pretensions of peaceful negotiation to this end, the evidence seems to suggest that the British Church was severely weakened by a bloody incursion in the west of England by the Duke of Northumberland. It is thought that this was at the behest of Augustine, the Pope's legate, to force the submission of the British Church.

The following is important to know in this general history in respect of subsequent events under the sub-heading 'The Knights Templar'.

Arabia saw the rise of a new religion, beginning in 609AD, but one that acknowledged the validity of previous prophets such as Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus. Indeed, the Arabs were also known as 'Ishmaelites', indicating that they were the descendants of Abraham's firstborn son, Ishmael, through his servant Hagar. 

The world soon heard of the name of Islam and Prophet Muhammed was both its spiritual and temporal leader until he died in 632AD. What then transpired determined a schism that has lasted within Islam ever since in the form of the broad division of Muslims into Shia and Sunni factions. On the death of the Prophet, it was determined that a caliph should be appointed to lead the Muslim community, but the party that eventually came to be called the Shia had expected the Prophet's cousin and son-in-law, Ali, to be the Muslims' automatic leader. They say that the Prophet indicated as much not long before his death. Although the spiritual Ali (a tradition reports that he would walk the streets at night to find poor to be fed) eventually came to be the fourth caliph, he was murdered and, not long after, further blood in Muhammed's family was spilt. This hardened the division to an extreme.

The Alid community were more disposed towards peace. Indeed, the followers of Ali saw in him a depth of both humility and transcendental teaching, while the literalists wanted another kind of Islam. But the matter of the lineage of Ali came to an important head when a Fatimid Caliphate was established in Egypt in 969AD. The 'Fatimid' line of the Shia comes from the fact that Fatima was the daughter of the Prophet, and Ali was her husband. Their lineage became the successors of Ali in Egypt via the line of Isma'il, and hence were also called Isma'ili Shia.

The city of Cairo was built by the Isma'ili Shia, and 'Cairo' is actually taken from the name 'al-Qahira al-Mu'izz' - 'the conquest of Mu'izz'. Mu'izz was the first Fatimid Caliph, and he and his successors built a city of civilisation, including a university. Cairo was a counterpoint to the Sunni caliphate at Baghdad, which became equally famous for art and science, and, equally, the Moorish Sunni occupation of most of Spain, which also became a place of splendour. Alhambra and Cordoba are still famous today. As is Morris (Moor-ish) dancing in England.

During the Fatimid period in Egypt, Isma'ili Shia Islam outwardly developed in a very different way to that of the Sunni faction, and, indeed, began to differ also from other Shia of different legacies. The Sunni and  Isma'ili Shia factions, however, developed their own forms of mystical practise - in the case of the Sunnis it was the development of (what became known as) Sufi thought, while the Fatimids (Shia) developed what was called Batini thought. Both streams were similar in outlook (and cooperated), but there were many variations of thought in both factions, just as there had been in early Christianity. "Many paths lead to God."

Rebellion took place in Egypt, however, as the whole population did not support the Fatimid cause, and the Fatimid movement took steps to relocate to create a new state which became based around the mountain fortress of Alamut (Persia) in 1094AD, when Caliph al-Mustansir Billah died. It was from this Persian state that the famed Assassins operated with the expressed intention of appropriating justice over the whole Islamic community while maintaining the ethos of Islam as they believed it to be. They thus struck terror into the heart of the Sunni Islamic leadership when the Fatimids decided that serious maladministration or persecution had occurred.

It is interesting that the sixth Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah was deified by a mystical group that came to be called the Druze in 1021AD or thereabouts. The Druze still exist today as a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion whose teachings are said to include those of Greek philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, and Zeno of Citium.

Another development that is believed to stem from either the Isma'ili Shia Islam or the Sufis (or combination of both), was a pious movement that called themselves Ikhwan al-Safa', a term that has been translated as both 'Brethren of Purity' and 'Brethren of Sincerity'.  They were based around Basra, Iraq, in the 8th or 10th century AD and were noted for not only their sincerely pious practise but also their deep intellectual study. Also, there once lived, in the 8th c. AD, a much-loved female Sufi saint named Rabia of Basra, and it is possible that there was some connection between her and the establishment of the Ikhwan al-Safa'.

With those latter spiritual developments, it may be worthwhile mentioning a somewhat contemporaneous development in India in the form of Adi Shankaracharya, who was an important early 8th century AD Indian philosopher and theologian. He is credited with unifying and establishing the main currents of thought in Hinduism. His works in Sanskrit discuss the unity of the Ātman (man's inner self) and Nirguna Brahman (God), and thus he consolidated the associated doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.

A Fatimid line did continue in Egypt but faced a decline and petered out, while the main Fatimid (Isma'ili Shia) line continued in Persia where (severely interrupted by the Mongol invasion of the 13th c. and dislodged from Alamut) they remained largely based until the 19th c. Today they exist throughout the world as a modern Islamic community (adjusting to time and place) under the leadership of HH The Aga Khan.  The Sunni world of Islam (by far the greatest portion of Islam) tends not to have a favourable attitude towards the Isma'ili Shia community, nor towards the Shia faction in general. The Isma'ili Shia community has, however, proved itself to be a highly organised and energetic Muslim community with a progressive vision of Islam who, in spite of their minority status and almost uninterrupted persecution throughout their history, were able to make significant intellectual and cultural contributions to Islamic civilisation, a tradition which they have continued to maintain to the present day.

With this great development of Islam, Christian Europe, therefore, felt itself to be under siege. Indeed, there were relatively low-key Muslim attempts to invade France in 720 and 732AD, but these attempts were finally repelled. Otherwise, in terms of learning, Europe fell a long way behind their Islamic counterparts, although, in time, much of the science and philosophy that evolved in Spain and elsewhere in the Islamic world, from Greek and Indian sources, eked its way into the Christian world. Today we use 'Arabic numerals', and we know well the meaning of alcohol!

The Vatican, however, was jealous and waited for its chance to get back at Islam and in particular to secure Jerusalem, which had long been held by the Muslims. When Christian pilgrims travelling to Jerusalem were set upon by Arab trouble-makers, the Christian world did not take too long to go into action. A Papal bull was issued and promulgated, and many stepped forward to rescue what they regarded as the spiritual home of Christianity. The Crusade of 1096AD (the first crusade) was launched and Jerusalem was finally captured in 1099AD, but it has to be said that there was the appalling slaughter of men, women and children, both Muslims and Jews. So much for the true teachings of Jesus. The inflamed religionists of both sides believed their adversaries to be unbelievers. And both felt entitled to consider Jerusalem as their spiritual capital.

But there came to be a group of crusaders whose attitude was somewhat different and had a different objective.

The Knights Templar

In 1104, Hugh, the Count of Champagne, and Hugh de Payens set out for Jerusalem and returned in  1107, though they appear to have made the trip a second time in 1114, returning 1116. Hugh de Payens was the co-founder and first Grand Master of the Knights Templar, and later chroniclers write that Hugh de Payens approached King Baldwin II of Jerusalem (whose reign began in 1118) with eight knights with an offer to provide protection for pilgrims. However, though this is the first occasion they are recorded in the Middle East, it has been thought by some that the Order's creation was as far back as 1100.

Now, many a question has been raised about the true purpose of the Knights Templar, and there is a strong suggestion that Hugh de Payens (himself apparently from Champagne) and probably other early members of the Order were descendants of Jews who had left Jerusalem after the destruction of 70AD and at some time got to Champagne. Further, that those Jews knew that something valuable was hidden at Temple Mount before the said destruction. It would seem that information had been handed down and was the true cause of the founding of the Knights Templar, for them to find a way to get to Jerusalem in order to excavate and extract what it was that had been hidden there. Whatever it was that had been hidden was clearly of great importance.

There is plenty of evidence that the said knights did undertake such an excavation, as a Britsh army captain, Charles Warren, himself excavated under Temple Mount between 1867 and 1870 and uncovered Templar artefacts and additional tunnels that they had dug. Entry to that site since then has been very restricted.

It is quite clear that only nine Templar knights would not have been enough to properly provide protection to pilgrims, and in 1128AD Hugh de Payens returned to Champagne, presumably with copious evidence of what had been excavated, that being the true reason for their presence in Jerusalem. He obtained support from the highly regarded monk Bernard of Clairvaux (founder of the Cistercian Order), and subsequently returned to Jerusalem with a much greater number of knights and associates in the Order and a document called the Latin Rule, which was a detailed code of behaviour for the Order. The said Bernard of Clairvaux had helped with the drafting of that code. Interestingly, Bernard of Clairvaux was religiously connected to an extraordinary polymath named Hildegard of Bingen, who has lately been rediscovered and is regarded as an inspiration to women.

So, in 1128AD the Knights Templar obtained the basis of good organisation to enable them to float themselves as a great service. However, the Knights Templar were, effectively, devout monks who wore armour and were able to fight as professional soldiers. They swore to live in poverty and owned few things - just a sword and (probably) two horses. Invariably they would have sold their other possessions and donated the proceeds to charity before embarking on their spiritual quest.

The Knights Templar were feared by their enemies and resolutely refused to retreat unless faced with overwhelming numbers. Even so, it was believed there were times when one Templar on his own could deal with six or more adversaries in one combat. They were without fear.

They accomplished - over time - far more than just fighting. They were builders of great castles and were admirable administrators, running their affairs with remarkable precision. This led to the Templars becoming bankers, and though they themselves continued to live a life of poverty, the bank vaults were brimming with their takings and profits. Their system of banking became a model for subsequent banking organisations.

But what is perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of their approach is that they were broad-minded when they needed to be. Perhaps as an indicator of what they had uncovered in Temple Mount revealed itself in the interest they took in the esoteric beliefs of other religions - including those of their apparent adversaries. For example, the Templars had frequent contact with the Assassins, previously described as members of the Isma'ili Shia fraternity. It is my observation that in the Assassins they found like-minded strivers after justice, and thereby some trust grew between them, both sides being true to their word. The Assassins and Templars established treaties and engaged in other amicable relations. 

One treaty even allowed the Templars to build several fortresses on Assassin territory. It is believed by some historians that, during peaceful interludes, the Templars learned about the Assassins' extensive mystical teachings and incorporated some of those teachings into the Templar system. There is some evidence to suggest that a secret society structure inherent in the Assassins was learnt by the Templars and applied in their own Order and later in Europe. This may even apply to the introduction of three degrees of initiation in the Order.

The Templars probably also had discourse with Sufis and other mystical streams, such as the Mandean sect. The Templars became a law unto themselves and yet while under the protection of the Pope himself!

There is even reason to believe that the Templars had sympathy with the mystical Cathar movement in southern France, and tried to support them during their 13th c. oppression and final destruction. The Roman Catholic church mustered another crusade - this time on European soil - to destroy the Cathars. Hundreds were burnt at the stake as a result of treachery.

There is a strong indication that during the Crusade era in the Levant, the Templars were at the height of their power in Europe. They owned properties throughout the Continent including large temples in Paris and London (the temple site in London is still referred to as 'Temple'). Their holdings and preceptories in Scotland were especially numerous. When the Templars abandoned the Holy Land after the Crusades, they eventually returned to their preceptories around the world, including Scotland. After the Templar Order was suppressed throughout Europe following the actions of King Philip IV of France in 1307AD and after, those Templars that evaded capture and torture by Philip refused to abandon their Templar traditions and so they conducted their activities in secrecy. Some took to piracy and was thus how the Skull and Crossbones came to be famous, as that was a symbol of the Templars.

Returning to the return of Hugh de Payens to Europe in 1128AD, there seems to be no documentation as to what he and his fellow knights had found at Temple Mount, but he did seem to excite the attention of Bernard of Clairvaux and, as we saw, returned to the Levant with considerable backing that allowed the Templars to become an organisation of great prowess and power. From that situation, we can possibly draw some other conclusions from what has since transpired.

Firstly, in respect of what developed in Northern France in the 12th century in the building of great cathedrals, instigated, it would seem, by ... Bernard of Clairvaux. Not only their construction, but their construction using sacred geometry both in each cathedral and as an overall plan in the region, as described by the author John Michel. Chartres Cathedral is a prime example in the sophisticated usage of sacred geometry. Its design has been amplified by the very expert and now venerable Keith Critchlow.

Before the 12th century, such great buildings were not thought of, yet within decades of the return of Hugh de Payens they started to become manifest. Presumably, they took some years to design, as well as building. Did the ideas for their construction come from sacred geometry knowledge found under Temple Mount? Did the Templars unearth knowledge that had been hidden from the west for over 1,000 years? Intrinsic knowledge that was known of in the construction of the Great Pyramid and Stonehenge.

A second matter which may be connected is the matter of Oak Island, an island across the Atlantic, adjacent to Nova Scotia. I have been following the investigations that have been held there for some years, and one idea is that early visitors to that place included the Knights Templar! Now that is not such a strange idea as there are strong indications that the Templars had reached mainland America, so, therefore, why not Oak Island, especially as a pre-Columbus document of Templar origin mentions a long voyage to "an island of oaks". Anyhow, part of the findings there includes a layout of stones in the shape of the Tree of Life, as defined in the mystical Jewish Kabbalah.

During the third crusade (1189AD-on), Richard worked considerably with the Knights Templar. To add a further note indicating the close connection in thought between the deeper elements of Christianity and Islam in the Middle Ages, Idris Shah (a master Sufi, in his book, 'The Sufis') refers to Richard The Lion Heart (King Richard I):
Richard the Lionhearted ... is said to have proposed that his sister should marry the brother of Saladin. She was herself the widow of the King of Sicily, whose rulers were using Sufi phrases in heraldic devices.
The Lionhearted's brother, John (excommunicated 1209) sent an embassy from England to the Spanish-Moroccan Commander of the Faithful, offering to embrace Islam. Richard himself married (in 1191) Berengaria of Navarre, whose brother, Sancho the Strong, was a close ally of the Spanish Arabs.
Deep respect existed between the opposing commanders at the time of the third crusade, Richard I and Saladin, and it is said that Richard brought knowledge of the Sufis back with him from the Levant.

Idris Shah, who says "The ancient doctrines of Egypt and Greece are in direct line with Sufism", went on to provide more useful data on what the Templars gleaned from the Sufis (and Isma'ilis):
That the Templars were thinking in terms of the Sufi, and not the Solomonic, Temple in Jerusalem, and its building, is strongly suggested by one important fact. "Temple" churches which they erected, such as one in London, were modelled upon the Temple as found by the Crusaders, not upon any earlier building. This Temple was none other than the octagonal Dome of the Rock, built in the seventh century on a Sufi mathematical design, and restored in 913. 
The Sufi legend of the building of the Temple accords with the alleged Masonic version. As an example, we may note that the 'Solomon' of the Sufi Builders legend is not King Solomon but the Sufi "King" Maaruf Karkhi (died 815), a disciple of David (Daud of Tai, died 781), and hence by extension considered the son of David, and referred to cryptically as Solomon-who was the son of David. The great murder commemorated by the Sufi Builders is not thatof the person supposed by Masonic tradition to have been killed. The martyr of the Sufi Builders is Mansur el-Hallaj (858-922), juridically murdered because of the Sufi secret, which he spoke in a manner which could not be understood and was thus dismembered as a heretic. 
The [two main] pillars of the Temple are not physical ones, but follow the Arabic custom of calling an individual (elder) a pillar . One of the Sufi pillars is Abulfaiz, sometimes called Abuazz . He is the great grandfather (third in teaching succession) of "David" (Maaruf Karkhi), and is none other than Thuban Abulfaiz Dhu'l-Nun the Egyptian, founder of the Malamati Order of Sufis, whose similarity to Freemasonry has often been pointed out. He died in 86o A.D., and is also known as the King and possessor of the Egyptian secrets.
The above thus lays the foundation for the final part of this history and which will soon be available. The final part will talk more about the influence of Secret Societies - and the antidote.

Thank you for visiting. I urge you to verify what I have written and I would be very glad to hear your point of view on any aspect! Please leave your comments.

Sunday, 15 March 2020

Ancient Truths? - Part 4 : From 3,000 BC to 100 AD

© 2020, John Lerwill

Dear Reader,

Reflections On Parts 2 and 3

Thomas O. Mills is a deep researcher and writer who has provided important perspectives on the history of the Earth, particularly through the teachings of the Hopi people of America. He has a deep respect for the Hopi people and believes their Creation Story can be proven. He also unveils intriguing data on pole shifts.

In his first book, 'The Book of Truth, A New Perspective On The Hopi Creation Story', he even traces the Hopi story back to Egypt and puts a new light on the murals, temples, and pyramids from that point of view, a view that rings true today.

In his second book, 'Stonehenge, If This Was East', Mills uses his knowledge of the Hopi Ceremonial Cycles to find ancient east at a number of unexplained ancient sites around the world. He then uses this knowledge to find true north and compares north to [writer] Charles Hapgood’s four North Pole locations in the past 100,000 years with amazing results—thus dating the sites and proving the Hopi Creation Story.

Mills's empathy with Hopi wisdom is palpable, and in his last book he narrates the following insight into the Hopi concern for humanity and the present-day Climate Changes:
The Elders I knew, learned from their elders, the prophecies past down from their elders, all the way back to the Guardian Spirt (Kachina) known as Massau’u, who gave the Hopi permission to occupy this land after a great flood. He told them what signs to look for in the future to tell when this world event might happen again. Massau’u was the original prophet. The Elders alive today do not claim to be prophets or try to foretell things as if by some divine inspiration. They are just repeating what was told to them in the past by their fathers and grandfathers exactly the way it was told to them. Massau’u instructed the Hopi to repeat his stories to future generations and he also told them that it would be a very hard job for them to accomplish, as very few people would listen to his prophecy’s in times of plenty. This was their job, and that is why the Elders talk to us today. They do not claim to be prophets, they do not claim to be psychic or have any magical powers. We put those titles on them because they talk about future events and those events are coming true today, just the way Massau’u told them they would.
A group of traditional Hopi Elders decided in 1948 that Massau’u’s message was not being heard fast enough. They elected four members to represent the tribe, giving each a sacred prayer feather, in the hope that their words would be taken seriously. This was a huge step for the peaceful people as no tribe member wanted to be singled out by them using his own name in public. This was completely contrary to the Hopi way of life, living modestly in all ways, and at all times. ...
By 1992, only one of the four spokesmen was left, Thomas Banyacya, and he arranged to speak before the United Nations General Assembly on December 10th of that year. All he took with him was his scared prayer feather and the ancient stone tablet (the most sacred object that the tribe possessed) that Massau’u had given the Hopi when he greeted them, told them they could occupy this land and proved that he existed. I can only image the stress Thomas was under protecting this tablet on his journey and during his stay in New York City. He practised his speech for 44 years and was allowed to speak for 10 minutes before the group of delegates:
Nature, the First People and the spirit of our ancestors are giving you loud warnings. Today, December 10, 1992, you see increasing floods, more damaging hurricanes, hail storms, climate changes and earthquakes as our prophecies said would come. Even animals and birds are warning us with a strange change in their behaviour such as the beaching of whales. Why do animals act like they know about the earth’s problems and most humans act like they know nothing? If we humans do not wake up to the warnings, the great purification will come to destroy this world just as the previous worlds were destroyed. 
Everyone at the Assembly heard Thomas Banyacya speak, but no one listened to the loud warnings he was talking about, or did anything about it. He passed away in February, 1999. ...
Today [says Mills], mankind is more concerned about who said what, when, and why. “How can we fix this global warming thing,” they say, “will it cost us any money, taxes, votes, or close any business?”

Ancient Knowledge

Relating to his book on Stonehenge, Mills noted (in relation to the 30 major stones in that megalith):
  • In our system, there are 360 degrees in a circle.
  • 360 degrees divided by 30 stones = 12.
  • In our Solar System the Earth moves through the precession of the equinox at 72 years per each degree: 360 times 72 = 25,920 years.
  • 25,920 years divided by 12 = 2,160 years.
  • 2,160 is the number of years in an age or each sign of the zodiac
  • each large stone would be 25,920 divided by 30 = 864 years.
He goes on to expand on these observations, but a main point to be drawn here is that he quotes such knowledge that was known of at least thousands of years BC. It is not knowledge that was suddenly arrived at by the Greeks or Egyptians within the last 3,000 years. It was known of way, way, before that time. The importance of geometry to the ancients - and should be to us now - is that there is wisdom that says that "as above, so below"; we should, accordingly, measure according to the pattern of the universe - or at least certain parts of the universe.

Interestingly, at one point the Earth's year was measured at 360 days, but then some celestial event happened that extended the year to our present 365.25 days.

John Michel was another esteemed writer who wrote very interesting books about Stonehenge and its mystical properties and noted that the geometry used at Stonehenge was also used in the Great Pyramid of Egypt and other megaliths. Michel also introduced us to gematria - the science of substitution of numbers for letters - and, further, illustrated how Biblical phrases (in the Greek language) can be interpreted into numerical values that have a mystical correspondence with numbers contained in megaliths such as Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid.

A long time ago, all science had an equal standing with sacred geometry and spiritual thought. It is only such a conception that can lead man to form a correct conclusion about his origin and the genesis of everything in the universe — of Heaven and Earth, between which he is a living link. Without such a unified and psychological link, and the feeling of its presence, no science can ever progress, and the realm of knowledge becomes limited only to the analysis of physical matter - of materialism, the philosophy that has latterly brought us to where we are.

From 3,000BC or Thereabouts

The matter of stone circles intrigues many people. It has long been known that many or most of those circles are related to the measure of astronomical phenomena in some way and for some purpose. Not only Mills and Michel have looked into the phenomena: the previously much-quoted Christian O'Brien spent much time investigating the circles of Bodmin Moor (Cornwall) and other stone circles with the results of his intriguing studies being made available in his book 'The Shining Ones'. Probably the first deep investigations into this subject were made, however, by Professor Alexander Thom, of whom the Society of Oxford University Engineers wrote on their website:
Professor Thom was Head of the Department of Engineering Science from 1944 to 1961. His engineering career had been in aeronautics and aerodynamics, but he was a man of great versatility and practical skills, and from the 1930s onward he developed a passionate curiosity about the arrays of standing stones, mostly in Scotland and the North of England, but also the much more studied ones of Stonehenge and Avebury. He attributed the origin of this interest to a visit to the stones of Calanais (Callanish) in 1933, when cruising his yacht in the Hebrides. The Pole star being visible, he spotted that some stones defined an avenue aligned almost north-south. But when the stones had been erected, several thousand years earlier, the Pole star had been in a quite different place, as a result of the "precession of the equinoxes". So how did the builders establish which way was north?
Over subsequent years, and particularly in retirement, he surveyed hundreds of these arrays, mostly either circles or egg-shaped rings, but sometimes more subtle arrangements. From the statistical analysis of his measurements, he concluded that they had been erected by people who used a linear measurement unit of 0.829 m (2.72 ft), and that they preferred to lay things out using, wherever possible, integral numbers of this unit. He termed this unit the "megalithic yard", and concluded that multiples and sub-multiples of it were also used for various purposes. ...
Thom's work seemed to imply a much higher level of sophistication on the part of these early people than was consistent with previous research results. To which it could be replied that if they could erect these enormous stones, build seaworthy boats and navigate the treacherous seas around Northern Scotland, then they were no fools, and the size of their brains was the same as ours. But unlike the ancient civilisations around the Mediterranean, no written records survive, even if they ever had any. But [speaking of the remarkable memory capacity of people in those days and before, which we will return to] those whose culture does not include a written language develop their brains in other ways. The early bards of around 800 BC who preserved the Homeric sagas, Iliad and Odyssey (24 books in each!), did so purely by memorising them [my italics].
Christian O'Brien's work has made it clear that his considered view (based on hard study and fieldwork) is that 'The Shining Ones' appeared in Europe after their long sojourn in the Middle East, with their purpose, again, being to uplift the peoples of these lands. After further time spent in Scandinavia, they were particularly prominent, it would seem, in the ancient pre-Celtic lands of Ireland, Wales and Cornwall (and probably Scotland) and would seem to have been the true originators of the stone circles of astronomical significance. As teachers of the people in all forms of farming, a primary use of many of those circles would be to help guide the farmer to learn of the change of the seasons, and related knowledge. But certain sites - Stonehenge included - clearly had greater significance. And all the sites were constructed utilising sound knowledge of geometry, a knowledge that would have been basic to 'The Shining Ones'.

The Spiritual Guides and Philosophers

Following the ultimately successful establishment of civilisations, which in turn was based on improved instruction in farming and sustainability, came the re-establishment of thought amongst humans and a return to attempting to realise one's true humanity. Perhaps the first grand spiritual philosopher of this age was Zoroaster/Zarathustra who may have lived as early as ca. 6,000BC, though there are those who believe he was active much more recently, ca. 500BC. However, my reading is that there was a much earlier man of the same name and that the person of that name in ca. 500BC was not the originator of the teaching.

The Zoroastrian Creed:

                   On three noble ideals be ever intent:
                   The good thought well thought,
                   The good word well spoken,
                   The good deed well done.

Zoroaster's influence was considerable within Persia, and many accept that his teachings seem to pre-date that of others of a similar school, and it was from this tradition that the Magi appear. For my part, I tend to the thought that it was from this Persian source that the so-called 'Aryans' emerged and settled in the Harrapa Valley in (then) North India around 5,000 to 4,000BC. The 'Aryans' appear not to be a race but a people of a spiritual quality - being pure in their practical spirituality. Perhaps it was from within this framework that the rishis emerged and wrote down (from their considerable spiritual attainment and memory) the writings known as 'the Vedas', a primary set of scripture possessed by those whom we, of late, call 'Hindus' - formerly 'Bharatiyas': of the country of Bharat, as India was once known.

It was in Bharat that the renowned avatar Krishna appeared, and where he left his mortal coil in 3102 BC. It was a transcendental teaching dialogue between him and his cousin Arjuna that became famously enshrined in the Bhagavad Gita ("Song Of The Lord"), a book known as the essence of the Vedas (the scripture).

The early part of the second millennium BC saw the appearance of the Code of Hammurabi, a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia.

In the same millennium, Phoenicia evolved, a Semitic-speaking Mediterranean civilisation. that originated in the Levant, specifically Lebanon, but also including coastal areas to the west of the Fertile Crescent. These people became known as great sea-faring people that certainly traded with places as far afield as Britain, and appear to have also left their mark in North America.

King Solomon lived in the early part of the first millennium BC and built his celebrated temple, constructed on geometrical lines.

Within the first millennium BC, we seem to find a host of men who became greatly significant in the world of thought in a period of increasing human consciousness. In Greece rose Pythagoras, who studied in Egypt and also - significantly - under the descendants of the aforementioned rishis, in India. In particular, Pythagoras is famed for his geometrical 'theorem', but this did not originate with him: it was brought back from India. India already knew about geometrical theorems such as this, as well as the concept of 'zero'. The five most ancient of Indian Shiva temples are constructed based on sacred geometrical principles and are almost perfectly aligned, north to south, built - of course - when no satellite technologies existed! But that principle can be observed at so many ancient sites in the world.
Five Shiva temples
Pythagoras was famed for his considerable knowledge and prodigious memory, as well as his healing capability. He was obliged to move to Italy and there founded a school of practical philosophy. 

In Greece, Pythagoras was soon followed by another great man - Socrates - and, in turn, he was succeeded by a pupil, Plato. There were many other Greek philosophers, but it was Pythagoras and Socrates that conveyed the essence of spiritual philosophy for that time and place. Britain has formerly favoured Aristotle more than the others, but that was perhaps because of 19th c. national leanings towards materialism, with which Aristotle would appear to have had some affinity.

But in the East during this period, there also appeared Laozi (Lao Tsu) in China, the Buddha in Nepal, and Mahavira (reviver of the Jain religion). 

In the fourth century BC, there lived the phenomenon known as Alexander the Great. Famed for his considerable conquests during his relatively short reign, his travels took him to India, which he failed to subjugate and, indeed, was impressed by the Indian version of stoicism displayed by brahmin priests. He founded the city of Alexandria in Egypt, where a great library was established, only to be destroyed, first by fire started during a battle in the last century BC and then the deliberate destruction of its daughter library in 391AD following the establishment of the Roman Catholic Church and their determination to destroy anything that didn't conform to their doctrine.

Back in Britain, the era around the second to the first millennium BC saw the arrival of the Druids, who are known to have travelled extensively and were greatly respected in Greece. Indeed, the typical education of a Druid would take up to 20 years and would cover a wide range of subjects including (but not only) astronomy and natural medicine. They understood nature.  

Events in the Middle East 0 to 100AD

The evolutionary developments of the previous 8,000 or so years affecting man's consciousness worldwide would seem to indicate their culmination in something, and this would appear to have coincided with the appearance of Jesus.

In fact, the establishment of a secret metaphysical (or gnostic) doctrine seems to have occurred in Egypt in pre-10,000BC times, and that continuously remained in operation. In fact, secrecy was essential as the typical mindset of that time was not ready to accept higher truths, but those that were initiated into the teachings of that school quietly influenced the development of man's consciousness and proper civilisation. 

One outcome of Egypt's secret society was a Jewish order called the Essenes, who were not only imbued with higher learning but were also Messianic in their objectives. Very much connected with the Essenes movement were John the Baptist and Jesus the Nazarene - not 'of Nazareth' as so frequently stated! The town of Nazareth appears not to have been in existence at that time! The Gospel of Philip, a third-century gnostic work outside of the canon of the church, claims that the word "Nazarene" signifies "the truth":
"Jesus" is a hidden name, "Christ" is a revealed name. For this reason, "Jesus" is not particular to any language; rather he is always called by the name "Jesus". While as for "Christ", in Syriac it is "Messiah", in Greek it is "Christ". Certainly, all the others have it according to their own language. "The Nazarene" is he who reveals what is hidden. Christ has everything in himself, whether man, or angel, or mystery, and the Father.... The apostles who were before us had these names for him: "Jesus, the Nazorean, Messiah", that is, "Jesus, the Nazorean, the Christ". The last name is "Christ", the first is "Jesus", that in the middle is "the Nazarene". "Messiah" has two meanings, both "the Christ" and "the measured". "Jesus" in Hebrew is "the redemption". "Nazara" is "the Truth". "The Nazarene" then, is "the Truth". "Christ" ... has been measured. "The Nazarene" and "Jesus" are they who have been measured.
To what extent was Jesus "measured"? Well, it was documented that during the time of his absence from the Gospels of the New Testament, between the ages of 12 and 29, Jesus was abroad. There is folklore that amongst his travels he visited south-west Britain with his uncle, Joseph of Arimathea, not just because of Joseph's business interests in tin, but because of some affinity with the Druids. The Druids, note, were spiritual brothers of the Essenes, and even their leaders are said to have worn a similar garb.

But the main testimony to the travels of Jesus lies in documents held in a Tibetan monastery and witnessed by a Russian traveller in the 19th c. Those documents have since been seen by others also, so there is not just one person's testimony. In those documents, the person of "Issa" is referred to, but this name is known to correlate to "Jesus". Indeed, Islam (Arabic) refers to Jesus as "Isa". The story related is that Jesus went to lands as far off as India and Persia, in addition to Egypt, to attain greater knowledge. There are also claims that during the latter part of his travels he was initiated into certain truths, including a mystical rite within the Great Pyramid. Thus, Jesus spiritually grew into being a son of God, and his greatest teaching was that each man can and should accomplish what he spiritually accomplished.

Now, the Essenes were prevalent in Palestine during the time of the Roman occupation, and following the demise of both John the Baptist and Jesus - who were the first patriarchs of the Jerusalem Church - considerable strife ensued. One outcome was that a party of the closest followers of Jesus, including Joseph of Arimathea and Mary Magdelene, and apparently also the son of Jesus, left by boat and, following a hazardous trip across the Mediterranean, arrived at Marseilles. While it is believed that Mary Magdelene remained there for the rest of her life, Joseph and Jesus's son went on to Britain where - at Glastonbury - they founded the first church outside Palestine, in 37AD. An article by me about this matter can be reached by clicking here. Joseph died in Britain.

Meanwhile, in Jerusalem, Jesus's brother James had become the leader of the Jerusalem Church until his murder in 62AD, and his son - in turn - followed as leader until the destruction of the church by the Romans in 70AD. The Essenes were also finally routed by the Romans at Massada in 71AD, though they mainly elected to die by suicide. Remnants of the Essenes and the Jerusalem Church fled to Alexandria and to southern Iraq, where the Mandean tradition was born. As to the teachings of Jesus in Palestine, the Jerusalem Church had won its day against Paulian teachings, but following the destruction of that Church, Paul's teachings resurfaced so that by the end of the first century (100AD), Paulian Christianity was beginning to gain a foothold.

It is noteworthy, however, that one of Jesus's most spiritually close disciples, Thomas, was delegated by Jesus to take the message of Jesus to the Malabar Coast (SW India, today's state of Kerala). There, Thomas found a considerable affinity with the local people and his church has peacefully co-existed ever since, except that in the 17th c. that church came under the dominance of the Roman Catholic Church following the incursion of the Portuguese.

It is very interesting, however, that the Romans not only found such a problem with the Essenes, but they also decided that the Druids in Britain were equally troublesome, being spiritual brothers of the Essenes. The Romans, having finally demolished the Essenes movement in 71AD, did the same to the main body of Druids only a few years later, at Anglesey in 77AD. It is thought, however, that remnants of the Druidic tradition remained in Scotland and the north-east of England until ca. 300AD. Absorption into the early British church, however, would not have been insurmountable as the two traditions, in those days, were so close in ideas.

It is because of the imminent Roman subversion of the Essenes and the early church, however, that the early church leaders decided to hide much of their heritage, and thus the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Nag Hammadi library came to light in 1945 onwards. Not only that, but the old site of the Jerusalem Temple became the focus for the Knights Templar after the First Crusade (1096AD), to discover what had also been hidden there.

Thank you for visiting. I would be very glad to hear your point of view on any aspect! Please leave your comments.

Part 5 of this series will be about the history since 100AD.

Sunday, 8 March 2020

Ancient Truths? - Part 3 : From 10,000BC to 3,000BC

© 2020, John Lerwill

Dear Reader,

Sequel to Part 2

In Part 2, I summarised pre-10,000BC history as much as possible, but I have left out some quite extraordinary mysteries, amongst which the story of findings in the Rumanian Bucegi mountains (link here and then click on the 'Secret of Secrets' tab at the top of the page) is perhaps the most remarkable. 

A dissimilar find, but still one that puzzles as it stands out in its uniqueness, is the Dolni Vestonice archaeological site in the modern Czech Republic which is said to be the oldest permanent human settlement found so far, spanning roughly 27,000 to 20,000 BC. It is reported that even a factory existed there as far back as that age, producing cordage, cordage byproducts, and textiles/basketry. Also, the early origin of ceramic technology at this site suggests that the local population were familiar with their surroundings and demonstrated an ability to manipulate and control their environment. This archaeological site was found in 1924, and is an immensely important find, but is little talked about in popular culture. In the context of the lost civilisations of Atlantis and Lemuria this is not a major find, but for those who do not accept the stories of much more ancient civilisations, Dolni Vestonice is highly significant.

Another consideration is that though there are so many languages spoken throughout the world, they are mostly known to have derived from one source, and within the last 15,000 years. It is clear that Sanskrit, Greek and Latin are closely connected but a connection between these languages and native languages as far away as the Americas is noted.

I am sure there is more to be found, given time, apart from those places that are lost to history through geological or other catastrophes, such as Atlantis.

A New Era - from 10,000BC

Man's Re-generation of Civilisation

The ending of the Ice Age and the destruction of Atlantis led mankind into a situation where many were having to start out from scratch again. Despite the colonisation by Atlantis of a number of different places, including Egypt and other satellites around the Mediterranean (as far west as what is now Spain - which sites show signs of having inherited at least some of the culture of Atlantis), great numbers of mankind were without knowledge on how to establish a way of life that had the potential for a beneficial evolution.

What is astonishing, therefore, is the rapid appearance of new and advanced cultures from before 7,000BC, particularly in what is called 'The Fertile Crescent', stretching from Egypt and Palestine/Israel through what is now Iraq. But China, Persia and India also became part of the expansion of great civilisations, the latter two places particularly attracted great attention when western man first started to absorb their spiritual teachings. As to Sumer (Iraq) and that area in general, we will soon return.

The ancient Fertile Crescent (hatched area)
The following, by J.D. Guigniaut in Religions de l’Antiquité (Paris 1825), was then a not uncommon reaction by those unfettered by dogma who had then only recently come upon the ancient teachings of India and Persia:
We modern Europeans feel surprised when hearing talk of the Spirits of the Sun, Moon, etc. . . . But we repeat again . . . the natural good sense and the upright judgment of the ancient peoples, quite foreign to our entirely material ideas upon celestial mechanics and physical sciences . . . could not see in the stars and planets only that which we see, namely, simple masses of light, or opaque bodies moving in circuits in sidereal space, merely according to the laws of attraction or repulsion; but they saw in them living bodies, animated by spirits as they saw the same in every kingdom of nature. . . . This doctrine of spirits, so consistent and conformable to nature, from which it was derived, formed a grand and unique conception wherein the physical, the moral, and the political aspects were all blended together . . . 
So, according to deep research through extensive fieldwork and observation of the numerous salt lakes that exist today, it has become accepted that - from a little older than 7,000BC - there was suddenly a decisive shift in the raising of mankind. This mainly sprang into life following a further catastrophe: a Great Flood. 

As discussed in my website article, there are hundreds of world-wide traditions of a Great Flood, and geological examination has not only verified a number of those traditions but shown them all to be stemming from about the same time: 7,640BC. Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas (in their book, 'Uriel's Machine') reveal that this Flood was triggered by the impact of a comet, but a comet that had broken up into seven parts - possibly as it entered the Earth's atmosphere - with those seven parts hitting the Earth in all the seas around the globe, causing massive tsunamis and a period of some time without the appearance of the Sun. Salt lakes and deserts in places as far apart as the Americas and Australia bear likely testimony to this catastrophe, following the draining away of the salty floodwaters.

The consequence of this impact was that a huge chunk of mankind and a huge number of lifeforms were annihilated. However, there were clusters of human survivors, but - amazingly - a new era of lifeforms appears to have been triggered during this period in the form of domesticated animals! Cats, dogs, cattle, sheep and goats, etc. And also the appearance of advanced agriculture. How - how?! - did all this regeneration suddenly occur? This is the miracle we shall now explore.  

Fresh Research and Analysis

To re-engineer humanity's way of life, Plato (in The Laws) hints: "...inventors then appeared among them successively and discovered fire, wheat, wine; and public gratitude deified them.” But Plato does not reveal all. Or perhaps he did not know the full story.

We now enter the time of recorded history concerning this era and the Middle East. Well, certainly if the ancient tablets of Sumer and Babylon are to be believed - and from which the Torah and Genesis of the Old Testament of the Bible appear to be derived. Not forgetting the once-respected Book of Enoch, which was respected in the early Christian church. And also the Epic of Gilgamesh.

However, the writers of the Torah and Genesis - at a much later period, being not very long before the Christian era - seem to not understand what the people of Sumer, Babylon and the Book of Enoch were saying (and possibly also had their own agenda), and wrote an account which varies on a number of points from the original. The Bible version is similar enough, however, to make one think that Genesis took those much earlier recording as its primary source. It would appear that the thinking of those early Jewish scribes severely influenced the thinking of western scholars even unto modern times, so that academia seems not to seriously accept the notion of beings existing other than modern man during that time. 

As Christian O'Brien states: "In taking the path that they had, scholars had established concepts, as truths, that should never have been placed in the receptive minds of uncritical men."

In the Book of Genesis we are confronted with references to certain entities other than bulk-standard humans - whether they be Angels, Watchers, Nephilim, or mere giants - and for all people brought up when young on a diet of that part of the Bible (without proper instruction), it seems like pure mythology. It's the Sumerian/Babylonian and Enochian tales - helped by Gilgamesh - that provide more of a fluent perspective, but still one that is strange to the modern reader: except those readers of science fiction and watchers of Star Trek.

It was a NASA engineer by the name of Blaumrich - who had at first taken an agnostic position after he had read van Daniken's 1968 work, 'Chariots of the Gods' - that long ago woke me up to the possibility that, hidden in the archaic (and mistranslated) words of the Old Testament, there are descriptions of things that had latterly become part of our consciousness - in this case, UFOs. Blaumrich had actually been able to fathom out from the Book of Ezekiel that the prophet was trying - in his limited way of the time - to describe spaceships. From his findings, Blaumrich was even able to draw a picture of a spaceship described in Ezekiel.

Enter, then, into the world of serious modern writers described in my Part 1 post, such as Christian O'Brien ('The Shining Ones' ) and the partnership of Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas (and their book, 'Uriel's Machine'). They - but not only they - provide a perspective on the ancient history in pre-Christian times that is not only readable but (in my view) to be deeply respected. They discuss the source of Plato's "inventors [that] appeared" in the light of today's perception of possibilities and knowledge - not the probable religious thinking of long ago by the Biblical writers.

I have a reason not to agree with all the perspectives of the above modern writers (for example, O'Brien still held the conservative belief that the Great Pyramid had been built as late as 2,500BC, and that Atlantis did not disappear until much closer to Plato's time) - and their conclusions vary in detail from one another - but there is a general picture they draw that is common and is, to me, entirely plausible, based - as it is - on apparently genuine ancient sources. The key has been the apparently proper translation and interpretation of extremely old cuneiform tablets, and it has been asserted that the famed writer on this topic, Zecharia Sitchin, unknowingly made use of a flawed translation of those tablets to achieve his best-selling books. Alan F. Alford sympathetically followed up on Sitchin's books with assertions of his own, thereby apparently compounding an inadvertent error.

The ancient Sumerian tablets receive supporting evidence from Enoch's writings.

O'Brien finds that the Hebrew term 'angel' derives from the Sumerian 'en-ge-li'

The 'Inventors That Appeared'

As discussed in earlier rambles, the Book of Genesis is these days often mistakenly translated into English to represent Elohim and Jehovah as, simply, 'God'. In the case of 'Elohim', it is a plural term anyhow. Fortunately, O'Brien - as a result of freshly translating ancient tablets - was able to get to the identity of the Elohim, who are key to all the ancient developments of the traditional 'Holy Land', and, indeed, the Middle East, followed by other major places around the Globe from the time they appear to have arrived at Mount Harmon in Lebanon ca.8,300 to 8,100BC.

O'Brien deduced that a proper translation of 'Elohim' would be 'The Shining Ones'. For this purpose, 'The Shining Ones' is a hierarchy of spiritual beings consisting of Archons, Archangels and Angels. The names of the Archangels that were involved seem to include names that are readily recognisable to many (note the 'el' suffix, meaning 'of God'): Micha-el, Gabri-el, Uri-el, Rapha-el. But these are but a few. It is noteworthy that Islamic tradition says that the transmission of the Qur'an (meaning 'recite!') to Prophet Muhammed was achieved by Archangel Gabri-el.

O'Brien is of the view that, though from a spiritual source, this entire hierarchy is able to take a human appearance (though their stature appears to have been much greater than the average human) and did so for the purpose of the task at hand - which started (during this specific era) with the Garden in Eden, but have most likely intervened in man's evolution a number of times in the great distant past before 10,000BC.  

According to O'Brien et al, 'The Shining Ones' were the "inventors [that] appeared", with each of the angelic host having a specific skill and responsibility. O'Brien quotes the patriarch Enoch as saying:
... the men brought me to the sixth h[e]aven, and there I saw seven groups of Angels, very bright and wonderful, with their faces shining brighter than the Sun. They were brilliant, and all dressed alike and looked alike.
Some of these Angels study the movements of the Stars, the Sun and the Moon, and record the peaceful order of the World. Other Angels, there, undertake teaching and give instruction in clear and melodious voices. These are Archangels who are promoted over the ordinary Angels. They are responsible for recording (and studying) the fauna and the flora in both the Highlands and the Lowlands.
There are Angels who record the seasons and the years; others who study the rivers and the seas; others who study the fruits of the Lowlands, and the plants and herbs which give nourishment to men and beasts.
 It would appear that perhaps the first project 'The Shining Ones' worked on was the development of the town of Jericho, but that another project soon gained their full attention. That project, the Garden in Eden, contained a locality named Kharsag that contained the garden, complete with a Tree of Knowledge, according to O'Brien, who continues:

... Kharsag [lay] just to the northeast of Mount Hermon in the Lebanon, in the second half of the Seventh Millennium B.C. The purpose of the astronomical work appears to have been that of setting up a time-scale on which agricultural activities could be reliably based.
Four thousand years later, that early work at Kharsag (suitably refined) was used to construct the astronomical complex on Bodmin Moor [Cornwall, UK]*The seemingly itinerant wanderings of the Shining Ones were followed down into the plains of Mesopotamia [modern Iraq] where, it was postulated, they founded the City-States of Sumer; and were traced back through Greece, Scandinavia and Scotland to Ireland. ...
In Sumer, these Sages were known as the dingir an a-nan-na-ge - the Shining, Great Sons of Anu'(l). In later Babylonian times, they were deified in their absence and absorbed into a Middle Eastern pantheon in which their true characteristics were lost. In Greece, they were to be remembered as the 'Gods of Olympus'; and in Scandinavia, they were the 'Gods of Asgaard and Valhalla'.
But it was in Ireland that they came closest to integrating with the lives of the ordinary people around them. There, they were known as the Tuatha De (D)anaan; an expression that can also be translated as the 'People of Anu'; and any Irishman, steeped in the rich mythology of the Hibernian countryside, will pronounce that the abundant mounds of his native land were built by the Tuatha De Danaan. 
* O'Brien provides a detailed account of his researches into the Bodmin sites in his book. He also identified considerable evidence at the site of Kharsag (Eden) to support the ancient cuneiform description of the site and what was undertaken there.
A map of Kharsag (the Garden in Eden) with buildings and topography as uncovered by O'Neill
Thus, the origins of many mysteries in Britain and Ireland seem to be derived from those times. Indeed, to provide more 'meat to the bones' on this thought, Knight and Lomas (in 'Uriel's Machine') refer to the patriarch Enoch's account of his travels in the north of the world - presumably in some flying machine - and his visitation to Scandinavia, Britain and Ireland. This journey was asserted by the authors after they had made calculations based on Enoch's reported sightings, and a visit to the famed prehistoric Newgrange site (in Ireland) by Enoch seems to be confirmed by Enoch's tell-tale description of the site.

Newgrange, Ireland - Enoch described the distinctive external wall
There is every reason to believe that 'The Shining Ones' played their part in other parts of the world, including the Americas, China, Persia and India (where they appear to be known as the 'devas'). Hence the great similarities found in the various cultures. There are also strong assertions made by some researchers that even in those far off times there were visitations by humans between those various countries: that they were not strangers to one another.

As a minor and comparatively recent example, visitations to America were made long before Columbus. Even the ancient Phoenicians seem to have left a trace in Canada. Not only the Vikings but the Welsh were there and also the Knights Templar, who appear to have made certain assessments leading to a (probably Church-motivated) grand plan for America that required its 'formal discovery' by Columbus to send that plan into motion. Columbus would appear to have had definite information about America before he set sail - it was not a chance discovery, though it would seem that the primitive navigation methods of the day did not cause him to land exactly where he wanted. 

The Big Story, Before The Flood

The appearance of 'The Shining Ones' around 8,100BC appears to have been connected with the transmission of significant additional practical knowledge to humanity, to revive humanity and to help in humanity's upward evolution - which is what the 'Grand Plan' was (and is) all about. 

As to how the plan for Eden was arrived at is sympathetically relayed in O'Brien's translation from the tablets, revealing that the true architect was female (Ninlil, later named Ninkharsag). O'Brien provides a delightful re-telling of the conference at which she persuaded the other delegates to favour her proposal. The manner in which the conference was conducted is quite illuminating and befitting to higher beings.

O'Brien talks of 'The Watchers', who are referred to in the Old Testament:
The main Book of Enoch contains an autobiographical account of the life of Enoch among the Elohim - the Shining Ones- in the area known as Eden which, as has already been suggested, can be identified from the text as the northwest corner of the Fertile Crescent, centred on Mount Hermon on the conjunctive borders of modern Lebanon, Syria and Israel.
Enoch had much to do with the Watchers, a large group of craftsmen-teachers [200 it would seem] who arrived in Eden [possibly around 7,570BC] as reinforcements for the third order of the Shining Ones. ...
The majority of the Watchers were despatched to the Lowlands of the Rift Valley to teach the expanding [nearby] Hebrew families the arts of reading and writing, and a wide spread of crafts and agricultural practices.
It should be noted here that a Sumerian epic states that when 'The Shining Ones' arrived,  the local tribes-people were still in a very primitive state. They were described as:
(i) living in caves - deduced from their entry into impermanent dwellings on all fours; (ii) being unfamiliar with clothes; they must have relied for protection on skins; (iii) eating grass (vegetation and herbs) and drinking ditch-water, and having no knowledge of agriculture.
As O'Brien reveals, the considerable work of 'The Shining Ones' was not without its setbacks. Some setbacks were almost human-like but another was a lot more significant. Somewhile after setting in motion the development of an ambitious project the 'Garden in Eden' - a body of 'worker' angels, who had been tasked with the heavy work, began to complain that their task was too great. The result of the complaint to 'head office', and after an extreme demonstration, was that the female Ninkharsag was again called into action. What happened next reveals the degree of science that 'The Shining Ones' possess, and demonstrated it as recorded in cuneiform so long ago. 

Ninkharsag (Ninlil) appears to have been a sort of 'chief scientist' in all forms of life, and it was determined that she would supervise - and act as a midwife in - the creation of a workforce to relieve the besieged angelic workers. She personally supervised what appeared to be equivalent to an IVF clinic, where 14 laboratory-created cultures of hybrid form (half lordling and half-human) were successfully brought to their birth through foster-mothers. 

In this process of creating the cultures, O'Brien revealed the difficulty of translating from the cuneiform, which at first seemed to refer to 'clay' (as stated in the Bible) as the basis for creating Adam, until further insight into the text was applied. Here, however, 14 births are indicated (7 of each gender), of which one is assumed to have been the Adam of the Old Testament, and another was Eve. The Patriarchal Family that was their children's inheritance was - should this account of hybridisation be true - a special inheritance as a result of their DNA being influenced by an angelic lordling.

These children came to take on the role of those lower angels in their work at Kharsag (Eden).  Alas, sometime after this event, the Watchers (members of benei ha-elohim) took matters into their own hands. 
Gen 6:1 And it was, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them, 6:2 that the benei ha-elohim (lit. “sons of God”) saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took wives from whomever they chose. 6:3 And God said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man forever, for that he also is flesh; and his days be a hundred and twenty years.’ 6:4 The nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also after that, when the benei ha’elohim came to the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; these were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown.
As Enoch reported:
Then Micha-el, Uri-el, Rapha-el and Gabri-el, in Eden, received reports of much bloodshed and lawlessness taking place in the Lowlands. They said among themselves: 'Their crying reaches up to the gates of Eden'. And to the Council, they said. 'Now Men are pleading with you, the Council of the Archangels, to bring these complaints before the Most High.'
The matter was referred upwards and a decision made, though a comet is not mentioned here as the instigator of the Flood. Enoch continues:
The Most High issued instructions that first Uri-el (Enki) should go to Noah, the son of Lamech: Tell him from me, 'Hide yourself', and inform him of what is to happen; that all the Lowlands will be destroyed in a Flood which will wipe out everything on it. And give him instructions on how he may escape so that his descen­dants may be preserved for all time.
The Watchers themselves seem to have received their own brand of punishment, but the Flood came as a punishment not only to the Watchers' erroneous offspring, the Nephilim, but to all mankind except at least one chosen family and those others that somehow survived. The Flood that arrived apparently affected the whole world as it seems to have been coincidental with the year 7,640BC - the date now scientifically accepted as the date of the worldwide Great Flood. As tribal Flood stories are often similar throughout the world, one wonders whether certain wise humans in other places of the world were similarly warned.

The Aftermath Of The Flood

'The Shining Ones', having already developed the city of Jericho and evolved the Garden in Eden, appear to have created the remarkable city of Catal Huyuk in Turkey, which dates from around 6,500BC, and to Ba'albeck, where 'The Shining Ones' are again mentioned in ancient tablets.

'The Shining Ones' also set up centres that developed into the city-States of pre-dynastic Sumer, and, probably, the Harappa Valley civilisation (north-west India).

In these places (and more), 'The Shining Ones' completed their self-imposed tasks of bringing measures of civilisation to the indigenous tribespeople before passing on to other areas, dispersing their immense learning (O'Brien states)... many parts of the known world - to Western Europe, including Scandinavia, Britain, Ireland and France; to Southern Europe including Italy, Crete and Cyprus; and to Greece and Egypt [a second occasion to each?], Persia, India and China. But only in Egypt, Persia, India [including ancient Tibet] and China is there evidence of spiritual development, and awareness of eschatological problems before the third millennium BC [though Greece, through Socrates and Pythagoras, had their form of spiritual teaching].
I would suggest that the Americas are missing from this list. The Maya, in particular, have shown considerable and equivalent learning that must have come from 'The Shining Ones'.

'The Shining Ones' appear to have departed from this planet by around 3,000BC, or became hidden. Having been provided and trained with the methods and structure within which to attain peaceful co-existence, man was left to carry on - with very mixed results! However, he was not left entirely alone - which is why man had prophets and spiritual leaders to guide him. These, in turn, were guided by 'The Shining Ones' as instruments of the One God. Throughout man's time on Earth there have also been avatars, whose origin and function is of a higher nature.

O'Brien goes to great length to state the influence of 'The Shining Ones' in Greece and Egypt, referring to ancient 'gods' such as Zeus, Eros and Osiris as members of their pantheon, but seem to infer a context of the time beyond 10,000BC.

The reader will want to make up his/her own mind, but the above is only my synopsis. However, the reader may be happy to do a detailed study of O'Brien's 700-plus pages opus consisting of plentiful technical data related to geometry and astronomy, and the 400-plus pages of Knight and Lomas's book. 

Thank you for visiting. I would be very glad to hear your point of view on any aspect! Please leave your comments.

Part 4 of this series will be about the history from ca. 3,000BC to 100AD.